Prof. Ho Mun Yin Samuel
Professor of Psychology
City University of Hong Kong
Professor of Psychology
City University of Hong Kong
Now in my presentation, I am going to talk about one of the very new topics, relatively speaking in Psychology. In many parts of the world, we call is positive psychology, but I am a clinical psychologist myself. So in my research and my clinical work, I apply positive psychology to help people with difficulty. And today, I am going to share from my experience in applying positive psychology and clinical psychology in Hong Kong over the past 20 years or so.
Now, let me show you a video first, from a movie…Okay, anyone know about the title of this movie? [Audience member says “Schindler’s List”]. Of course, so yeah, some young people may not know. But Congratulations, you’re very young. So there is something very special about this movie clip. Anyone notice that? Something special, very interesting about this movie, many years ago… for centuries. And now if you go to Google to search, it’s called the Red Girl or The Girl in Red. So, there’s a girl dressed in red in this particular movie clip. Now, I’m a clinical psychologist. So in the past, clinical psychology and psychologists would like to focus on the background, the chaotic background. Psychologists don’t have any interest to study about something positive in a very chaotic environment. Okay, so Psychologists…“they don’t care, they don’t notice about positive”, they focus on studying the negative psychopathology. I got the privilege to go to one of the very beautiful beaches near my hotel in this particular city. So I just noticed, I learned yesterday that people in Sri Lanka are very positive. I’ll show you a video clip I took yesterday. People from Sri Lanka, you probably know about this. I was very happy yesterday in that particular area. So people are very positive. Now, for me, people in Hong Kong are focused on the stormy water. It was very dangerous to me. However, people in your country, Sri Lanka, so happy, by some very simple things. There’ll be a thousand people, more than a thousand people, just standing in front of the sea to enjoy the wave! This little girl together with her father, they laugh. So in this particular country, you’re very positive. You’re so positive; you don’t need me to talk about positive psychology. However, I’m going to share with you some of the basic concepts in positive psychology.
Now this is of the three pillars of positive psychology. Three key elements of positive psychology according to Martin Seligman, the Founder of positive psychology in America. So according to him and his colleagues in Philadelphia, they talked about three very important concepts. First, for positive psychology, we focus on strengths as well as weakness, so that life takes place like conventional psychologists. We help people to reduce their weaknesses as well as to harness their strengths. This is one thing. Second, we build fast things. We build things that are good as well as repairing the bad. So from a clinical psychologist’s point of view, we have to reduce the symptoms as well as to pull up their strengths—something good in them. And, for psychologists, according to Martin Seligman, be concerned about the life fulfillment as well as helping people with psychological problems. So he focused both on people with psychological problems AND people with normal psychology. So these are the key elements of positive psychology—they study and focus on positive emotion, many people call that happiness, and build up good character, so that they have a good life. And finally, help to build up a positive institute helping people to have a meaningful life. So people have good emotion, positive emotions, they have a positive character and use this positive character to build up a good society.
This is the latest model according to people in America. So, they call it PERMA. PERMA includes five components, like positive emotion and relationship. So, positive psychologists are also interested in helping people have a good relationship, meaningful relationship with other people, which are consistent with Asian culture. And second, engage people into something meaningful and helping people to have a meaningful life and achieving what they want to achieve. It’s a superb model. Today, I am not going to focus on the PERMA model because it can be modernized a little bit that I’m going to talk more about later.
So, what is applied positive psychology? In some places, we call it positive psychology intervention. So, positive psychological interventions are psychological interventions helping people to cultivate good, positive emotion, a meaningful life, positive behavior and positive cognition, positive thinking style. And it is very important that positive psychology is not to replace traditional psychological approach. It’s not going to replace conventional psychological intervention. It is a supplement of conventional psychology. So, in my research over the past few years, I focused thoughts on psychology and positive psychology elements. A simple way to look at this is something like this. Now, in traditional psychological intervention, we help people to avoid problems. We help people to cope with their problems. This is conventional clinical psychology. In the hospital, we do that. If you have a disease, you’re depressed; we can help reduce your depression. Positive psychology on the other hand, helps people to obtain something good and to celebrate, to enjoy something good. So, they are complementary to each other—both okay?
So today, I am going to share with you some of my hunches and my experience in applying positive psychology to help people in Hong Kong. Now, I’m going to talk about mainly two topics. Assessment…I’m going to introduce you to some assessment tools developed over the years. And by doing so, I thought I will be able to also share with you, some very key concepts in positive psychology and towards the end of this presentation, I’m going to talk briefly about intervention. Now, I don’t have a lot of time to talk about intervention here, but on Sunday, I have a workshop, in the workshop, I’m going to focus more on intervention. So my key question for you is, before I start, first, is positive psychology cultural-universal or cultural-specific? So, the basic question is, when we learn positive psychological concepts from people in America, in the west, do we or should we make modifications to suit people in Asia or in Sri Lanka? This is one thing. Second, as a clinical psychologist, I always satisfy my questions. Now, if I have the knowledge to reduce symptoms and problems of people. So, talk about depression in hospitals, if I happen to reduce depression, is that enough? Is there any advantage of building something good to help you to reduce symptoms? So, the cause-effect property has to be very good. Now, the administrator asked us, why I need to give you these answers to do more work, is there any advantage according to scientific research? So, this is actually my topic. [Shows an image on the projector]. So, most people will think that this is negative, I hope. If not, go to Sir Darshan. So, something “negative” here. Some people think this is positive and this is negative…in China, some people call this evil…to talk about money. So, depending…my question is, how are those positive things? And while there are some negatives, I also give some positives. So, this is what I’m going to talk about today.
Now, about the first question…whether positive psychology constructs are universal or not? I did a study few years ago about Chinese and English words. Now, in America, they got a “norm”—they got some data, they call it a new database. So, they have many, many English words and they have a system to ask people to rate the variants of the words; how positive, how neutral and how negative they are for the words, and the computer database has some words that are positive, some words that are negative and neutral in English. Now, I wanted them to translate those adjectives, those words in Chinese—would Chinese people still rate those words as positive or negative, consistently with the American norm? And this is how people usually rate the word—this is a self-assessment according to the Hong Kong scale. So, don’t focus on the details of this. But, basically, we translated some of the English words to Chinese, we asked a lot of people to rate the words, and this we focused on 174 words in a new system. It’s a widely accepted system in the west. So, basically, according to this report, the rating of the words, one axis is the Chinese rating and the other axis is the new rating—we can see the consistency of the ratings. So here, both Chinese people and Western people would rate them as negative. For words here, they are rating in both languages. So, both Chinese people and American people rated as positive. So, the key finding is this: there are some words that are rated very positive in the western world, like happiness. Chinese people rate this as neutral. What would it rate in Sri Lanka? So, when you talk about happiness, some people say “Ah!” In the west, in America, they say “ah! It’s very positive”. On the other hand, if you talk about happiness in in Chinese societies, some Chinese people will think that it’s not that positive. There are some positive words in both languages freedom and enthusiastic. On the other hand, there are some very few words that are rated as positive in America, and that is amongst the Chinese calculator. I’m not going to go into detail about that, if you want to know how we explain the finding, you can find it in the full paper. These are the five most negative words in Chinese new system. So Chinese people…when Chinese people are told, “you are stupid. You are an idiot”, they become very unhappy. On the other hand, people in the west, they focused on more on cancer, suffering, pain. These are the five most positive words: freedom, enthusiastic… so positive words in Chinese, these are negative and these are positive words in English. Now, the most important finding in this study is…that consistency between negative words are higher than positive words. So that when you talk about something negative, it’s more universal compared to some positive. So we need to be very careful when we apply positive psychology concepts to Asia. I’ll give another example. This is some of my very early work in positive psychology. I studied happiness. In positive psychology, we call this subjective well-being. So, I argue, many years ago at the American Psychological Association Convention, I argued that American concept of happiness cannot represent the total picture of happiness amongst the people in China. So, in America, they focus on an individualistic concept, “I am happy”. So if I am happy, this is the total picture of happiness. On the other hand, in Asia, we argue that there is actually another dimension called collective independency interpersonal happiness. So, in China, I go to the hospital and look at my patient. I told them, “Okay, I’m coming here to help you”. Somehow my patient got a lot of resistance in receiving psychological help, even though they got serious psychological problem and serious physical disease like cancer. I told my patient, “I am coming here so that I will be able to learn about your problem and because of that, I will be able to help your significant others. So I come here not to help you, I come here learn about your problem so that I will be able to help your wife, your children to be able to cope better with your disease. Then they become more receptive about psychology. So Chinese people, Asian people, we care about the well-being of others, our significant others and we incorporate them into our own well-being. This is what I’m arguing. And in Korea, some will say that there’s also a social norm. So, in Korea, if you don’t have a job, you cannot be happy. You cannot tell people you are happy, even though you are very happy because you can spend time with your family. You don’t tell people that because that’s the social norm. In China as well, if you don’t have enough money, you should be unhappy and don’t tell people you’re happy. So, according to a researcher in Korea, he called this “social norm”, social dimension of happiness. So, there are different dimensions of happiness. And in my research, this is actually in the questionnaire on happiness. Five kinds of subjective well-being scale developed and on top of that I have an additional item. So, don’t worry about the additional item, we will talk more about this in the workshop. The major thing in my study for comparative purposes, is that, in both Hong Kong and Beijing, we found that there are actually two dimensions of subjective well-being. So, if you want to measure happiness for people in Asia, on top of the individual happiness, you probably also want take care of the interpersonal dimension of happiness in assessment. So, this is one of the early conclusions we have. Human begins are capable of arriving true happiness from the happiness of significant others and this dimension of happiness should be relevant to the overall subjective well-being. I mentioned this in America, but over the years, in the west, in Europe, they studied and also concluded that there is also another dimension of happiness in the west as well, relatively speaking. So, interpersonal happiness might be more particular in Asian culture and to a certain extent, individual happiness will be more applicable in individualistic cultures.
Now, we talk about my current research: assessment of strengths and virtues. Now in positive psychology, virtues and strengths are observable traits that manifest across situations that are beneficial to both self and other. So this is positive psychology. In positive psychology, we build on strengths and character strengths of people that are of benefit to both self and the other. This is the basic definition of virtues. And in positive psychology, Martin Seligman’s team member proposed this structure of virtues and strengths. So basically, there are twenty-four character strengths. These twenty-four character strengths are cross-culturally valued. So, in all cultures, in all countries, people value these twenty-four character strengths. And you get the character strengths in six versions, so there is some concept. So this is the questionnaire: Two hundred and fourteen items to assess twenty-four strengths. And there are some forms with 120 items. Now, the problem is that over the years, we gave people this two hundred and fourteen scale to complete—it’s too long, too complicated. Imagine you got depression, I ask you to complete a questionnaire, twenty four item, and you kill yourself. Anyway, so, it’s too long; this is one problem. We need a shorter questionnaire. Another problem is that we found, both amongst my colleagues and myself in Hong Kong, that some of the items are not very valued in different cultures. So let me use this example—I never tell outsiders bad things about my team. In China, this is expected; you don’t have tell people bad things about your team. This is not a positive relationship according to us. Still two items: I am practice my religion. In mainland China, it’s not very appropriate to talk about religion in China. But, this one, courage: when people say something mean, I immediately protest. In my culture, if a professor in university, told you something wrong, you raise your hand “I don’t agree with you”, you are committing suicide, socially. So, you can fail and get an F in your examination. So it’s not appropriate in China…it’s encouraged, it’s expected. I don’t know how it is in Sri Lanka, however. Some more: I have more trouble eating healthy food. I have trouble eating healthy food, myself. On the other hand, in some cultures, if you don’t even have enough food to eat, how can you care about healthy food? So some of the items are not totally “applicable” to people in different cultures, in China at least; we talk about this in our paper… on the other hand, many independent studies in America, they found that “virtue structures” is not valid. It cannot be repeated, even in some populations in America. So, I talk about the six virtues, twenty-four character strengths, these structures. So when you administer the questionnaire, the scoring is not totally correct, even for people in America. In America, more studies are seeing that there are actually the questionnaire itself can be clustered into three factors. We replicated that in Hong Kong. We find the same three factors. I’ll skip the details of the study…so, consistent with the research study in America, we found there are three important virtues in China; Interpersonal strengths. So, if you have an interpersonal strength, you are doing good yourself and to the society. Now, this is the basic definition of virtues. So, if you have good relationship with other people, you care about other people, you are doing good to yourself and to the society. If your international strength be curiosity, creativity, vitality, you’re very eager to learn about new things. You’re good to yourself and to society as well. On the other hand, they have tolerance for consistency. So you’re very consistent. You don’t mind repeating the same thing over and over again, but once you start, you will be determined to finish it…very particularly for people in China; so if you’re doing good to yourself. So we are arguing, together with independent researchers in America that these are the three important virtues; probably applicable all over the world. Of course, I’m very keen to do some study in Sri Lanka, in this part of the world to see if it’s applicable also to people in this country. And I even did another study to develop a very brief strength scale. So, this is actually a paper in psychological assessment. So, because in hospital, I administered the questionnaire to my patient; I did a very short questionnaire, a brief questionnaire in order to address three virtues, three strengths for clinical patients. So, I developed that and this is actually the items of the brief strength scale, still measuring the same three character strengths, the same virtues. And in my experience, it is more applicable, it more accessible, it’s easier to handle because it’s short—most people don’t mind filling it. Also, the concept of three virtues in psychology is easier for people to understand: these are your strengths, this is your score…it’s easier to understand than twenty-four strengths—there’re a lot of strengths. So my conclusion is that in a cross-cultural kind of situation, there are three factors/structures applicable to people in mainland Hong Kong as well as people in America. And the twelve-item, brief strength scale can be a computed along the inventory and it is especially useful for screening and to monitor progress of our patients in intervention. And again, I’m very eager to repeat this study in this part of the world to see if the brief strength scale is applicable to people in this country. And the happiness scale is in our hospital, so this is something I’m working on as well.
Now, I’m too negative, I’m not very positive. If I tell you that most concepts in positive psychology are not applicable to people in other cultures, I’m going to show you another study to illustrate that some concepts are actually applicable with little modification from people in different parts of the world. We developed a post-traumatic growth scale together with a research university in America. But I’ll briefly inform you a little bit about PTG, the post traumatic growth concept. Now, after the disaster like land sliding, we call it a worse event, a trauma. There are several possible outcomes in the past that psychologists focused on mostly on these two. So, after a traumatic event, people have a decrease in functioning and gradually, they die. So the cognitive theory after a traumatic event is extremely impossible to learn from and integrate. And also, there are some people who can survive. So, people who have a traffic accident and then they become disabled…so they survive the pain and psychologically as well. So after trauma, when people survive, they are still able to function. However, they are more probable to develop symptoms…they have difficulty and depend on other people. Now, there is another true probable outcome, less focused perhaps by clinical psychologists, what is called recovery. So there are certain people after a traumatic event with decreased functioning and then they bounce back to their original level of functioning. Now, you call that resilience. That is okay. However, there is another phenomenon less studied by psychologists called post-traumatic growth. Many years ago, a very famous psychologist in America called it thriving. Now we call this post-traumatic growth. So, there are some people…now, in the past, we focused on studying people with problem, we focused on the problem after a traumatic event. On the other hand, we want to know why some people are able to survive without impairment after a traumatic event like flooding. We know very little about these people…this is the focus of positive psychology. So, I mentioned that in Hong Kong that positive psychological change, individual experienced maintenance of functioning after a traumatic event. And this can be a transformation or cognitive change in addition to quantitative change, a change in nature, personality characteristic of someone. I’ll give you an example, a quick example. Now, this is many years ago in Philadelphia after September eleventh. At that time, Robert was very impressed. He told me that his father was killed in the incident. The story was that his father had held the door for other people to get escape. So he held the door so that other people can escape but he was killed in the incident. So, Robert was very impressed at the time I saw him in Philadelphia. But he told me that he tried to use his experience to help the other people with similar problems. Let me hear about the story of Robert…[plays video clip of Robert]. So, if you Google, you will find it. So, he’s trying to use his experience to help people with similar experiences. So, in psychology, can we study those people’s characteristics with those positive changes and be able to cultivate positive changes amongst those people after a traumatic event? So that they’ll do make good to themselves and to society as well. So, this is one of the missions of positive psychologists, currently. We did a study together with a university in New York…similar findings. And in fact, in Chinese, the concept of post-traumatic growth is very consistent with the Chinese culture. These are two Chinese characters. This is danger and this is opportunity. So, amongst the Chinese, if you have trauma, there is a possibility for you to have positive changes, i.e. the opportunity is there. This is adversity in Chinese, someone rowed a boat against the current. So, the “moral” is that if you are at adversity, if you work hard enough, you still gain something out of it. So this is Chinese culture. So, some concepts in positive psychology are consistent with Asian culture, in Chinese culture. And we completed a study about the post-traumatic growth scale. I’m not going to go into details about this scale. If you go to the website probably you can complete the scale yourself. So, the major thing is that I find very similar structures. So according to America, there are actually four dimensions, components for positive change; self, spiritual, interpersonal, and life orientation. We find similar structures in our study amongst people in Hong Kong. So, the asset is that there are some concepts in positive psychology like post-traumatic growth that are very consistent with Asian culture and in terms of assessment, some of the instruments they develop are applicable to people in Asia as well, at least to people in China. So, we did other studies to control for trauma, to control for culture. We did another study in Taiwan as well. So basically, they are similar…the structures. So the questionnaire is applicable to people in China.
So now, I talk about one important application of this concept of post-traumatic growth in cognitive Behavioral Therapy. We talk about cold condition and heart cognition. Cold condition will be the fact. So, if you don’t have cancer and you believe you have cancer, this is an incorrect cold condition. In psychotherapy, we help them correct this wrong condition, inappropriate condition. However, there is another way. So, we correct it…you know, cancer is a wrong, distorted condition. If the fact is correct, we help you to have a distorted condition, positive condition. It’s a little bit difficult to grasp, I’ll give you an example. In Hong Kong, this is one of the cancer faculties. So they’re telling people that if you have cancer, it’s the perfect opportunity for you to gain hope and glory. So, this it. So if you don’t have cancer, you’re wrong…then you have a delusion, I help you to understand that you don’t have cancer in psychotherapy. Or, if you have cancer and think that it is an awful experience to have cancer, I help you to come out of that experience. And finally, it’s awful to have cancer; I do one step further as a therapist to understand that having cancer can be an opportunity to growth. This one is positive psychology. Now, traditionally, we do this only…it’s awful to have cancer and I help you to understand that it’s actually not very easy awful to have cancer, to be able to cope with it. This one is positive psychology. If I got cancer…I know some study telling you that it’s a potential for growth. So, with cultural and positive psychology, you need to exercise care and do more research in order to understand the applicability of positive psychology concepts in your culture.
Now finally, before I close, I’ll use the last five minutes or so to talk about intervention. Again, I will talk more about intervention in my workshop. This is a model we are using; we call it the shy model. So, in our intervention model, to help people to increase their resilience, we cultivate strength, we cultivate hopeful thinking style. We help them to interact with other people, we help them to notice both the positive and the negative and we help them pray for these changes and this is the empowerment of teachers. So, in Hong Kong, the teachers experience a lot of stress. So we help those teachers and students. So we help them to increase their resilience and this is application of positive psychology in Hong Kong. So, first, I am focused on this intervention on three key topics. First, we help people to notice both the positive and the negative. So, we are very sure that if you focus only on the negative after a major disaster, you got more depression, you got more anxiety. On the other hand, if you can see both the positive and the negative, you’ll be able to cope better after the disaster. So, in Hong Kong and in many other places, after earthquakes and different disasters in China, we help people to notice both the positive and the negative. So, in Hong Kong, we help people to notice both the positive and the negative by doing a very common exercise in positive psychology. But before we do that, we do study; we investigate people. Now, this is a very common experiment in psychology. We studied about attentional bias…so, we don’t talk about details about how to do it but if you Google it, you will know about these procedures. We administered the test to people with breast cancer in hospital. Now, imagine that if you got cancer, the symptoms are life and death to you. So, if people got breast cancer, something wrong with the body, they need to pay extreme attention to those symptoms because it’s dead or alive. So, gradually, people forget about something positive during the trauma. Now oncologists, psychiatrists and even certainly, psychologists… we are trained to focus only on the negative, in the past. So if you focus only on the negative, if you are a clinical psychologist working in a hospital for a long period of time, if you got a family problem, you’ll only focus on the problem of your kids…”oh you did something wrong” because you’re trained to focus on only the negative. So in positive psychology, we ask people to do this. You can even do this even now. Think about three good things happening to you after you woke up today. Something you can do very quickly. Some people have difficulty doing that. Now, if you train people to do that every day, eventually you got a child come back home every day, you ask him, what is wrong with you today? Gradually, you train him or her to focus on the negative. On the other hand, your child come back home today and you ask him, tell me something good today, you gradually train him to have more sensitivity towards the positive. I’ll give you an example now. This is one of the facilities we created in Hong Kong [plays video clip]. So this is the situation in Hong Kong. We call them other nationality…other nationality than Chinese. So, there are some people from South Africa, they take a small amount of an illegal drug in Hong Kong to earn enough money just to feed their baby and help and then they get themselves dis-promoted because of this, they’re very depressed. So, this is a new, award winning facility inside the prison to help them to cope with their depression, emotional problems using positive psychology. We just saw people impressed by this facility in the International Journal of Therapy. So, this is very successful and we’ll talk more about this in the workshop. It’s new, pioneering in the world and we’re trying to establish similar facilities in public hospitals one day, so that if you got cancer, long-term illnesses, life-threatening illnesses, could we do something like doing counting blessings to increase your sensitivity towards something positive. I worked in the pediatric center for years. Some children, they told me something positive like “okay, this medical doctor, they wear beautiful ties today…this particular nurse dressed in red today, so very cheery and very wonderful. Some of the children don’t notice that as well. So, in Hong Kong, we encourage oncologists to paint the wall in different colors so that we will be able to sensitize people to notice about the positive inside the hospital. So, when we do something like this, this is positive psychological intervention. So…and there are other things we are doing. We have some story books to teach people about hope; we have some sort of a manualized intervention to increase hopeful thinking style of people. We have strength based interventions for parents with children suffering from cerebral palsy. This is a very moving kind of intervention I did. We have a group of parents all with children suffering from cerebral palsy and we sit together and we talk about the strength of themselves first. So, in China… In Chinese culture, if you have a baby with a problem, you have very low self-esteem, you think there must be something wrong with yourself to have a baby like that. So, in the group, we happen to notice about their character strength. Then, we help them to know about the character strength of their child. You won’t imagine that when they’re crying on the spot, when another parent says “Ah your child is very caring. She helped my child to get on the bus, so your child is a very caring baby”, on the spot, immediately, the mother cried. So, we’re doing something like this…all published, so if you want to learn more about this intervention, you go to my workshop on Sunday , I’m going to tell more about this and share this with you, how we’re going to do this as well.
So Thank you very much!
Director of Academic Affairs
Colombo Institute of Research & Psychology
Good Morning Dr. Chitramalee, Professor Ho, and all distinguished guests, participants, sum of the chair, students, organizers, media and everyone present today. It is indeed a pleasure to address you all at the third International Conference on Applied Psychology or ICAP 2016.
So basically when we started in 2014, we had about 100 participants from about 12 countries. Since then, the conference has grown in terms of quality and quantity. But one thing I would like to emphasize on today, because when we started in 2014, as we looked at even 2015 conference, the majority of the participants were from western hemisphere. As much as I was happy about it because we have very strong links with British universities, so very happy about getting professionals from the western hemisphere but I was worried because, the main aim of ICAP was to make sure that we center research in the region. So the participation from Sri Lanka as well as from the region was not very significant in the first conference. It increased in the second conference but today, I am very happy that we have the majority of the participants representing the region as well as lot of Sri Lankan participants. So I think we are slowly achieving the initial goals of ICAP, where we wanted to create the platform where we’re able to disseminate knowledge, especially among the South Asian region. So I’m very happy and thank you very much for all the participants from South Asia. I’d like to specially welcome you all because there’s no point in having a conference if only we have the guest speakers and also if it’s only going to be Sri Lankans. So the long-term goal of this conference is to create some sort of a collection of professionals and academics who are interested in the field of psychology from the region to work together. Because I think most of the issues that we share when it comes to psychology and research, is common in the region. So if you’re able to work together, I am sure that we will be able to uplift the services and thereby be able to help the communities in our countries much better.
And also, the other thing is, you know the division psychology and psychiatry is very evident in South Asia. So I am very glad that Dr. Chitramalee is here today. So over the last two years, we’ve been getting the blessings of the psychiatric community which is essential if we are to work towards the well-being of the people through mental health. I personally don’t believe that division or segregation between the two fields would do any good to the people that we ultimately go on to help. So therefore, thank you very much for coming and giving the endorsement that psychology requires from psychiatry.
Those are the few words I wanted to share. So basically, I think next year we will have more participants. Last year, I remember we had participants from about 15 countries. We had participants from New Zealand on one end to all the way from Peru. This year, we focused more on getting regional participants. So now we know that we are able to attract regional participants as well as international participants. So next year, I am sure that we’ll be able to get a more diverse group of individuals. So actually, the sharing and networking would happen at ICAP.
So thank you very much for being here today and congratulations on your achievements in terms of your research. I know research is a lot of hard work. Congratulations on the paper presenters and enjoy the rest of the 2 days at ICAP.
Thank you very much.